2nd Ed. By Dr. P K Pandey for All Undergraduate Programs (B.Com, BA, B.Sc, BBA ….) with 1100+ Solved MCQs, RELEASING 2nd January
Unit 1 :
The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies: Definition, scope
and importance; Need for public awareness.
Unit 2 :
Natural Resources: Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural
resources and associated problems-a) Forest Resources: Use and over-exploitation,
deforestation. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and
tribal people. b) Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground
water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems. c) Mineral
resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using
mineral resources, case studies. d) Food resources: World food problems, changes
caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizerpesticide
problems, water logging, and salinity. e) Energy resources: Growing energy
needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy
sources. f) Lance resources: Land as a resources, land degradation, man-induced
landslides, soil erosion and desertification; Role of an individual in conservation of
natural resources; Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
Ecosystems: Concept of an ecosystem; Structure and function of an
ecosystem; Producers, consumers and decomposers; Energy flow in the ecosystem;
Ecological succession; Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids;
Introduction, types, characteristics features, structure and function of the following
ecosystem: a. Forest ecosystem b. Grassland ecosystem c. Desert ecosystem d.
Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
Biodiversity and its conservation: Introduction – Definition: genetic, species
and ecosystem diversity; Biogeographically classification of India; Value of
biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option
values; Hot-spots of biodiversity – India; Threats to biodiversity: habits loss, poaching
of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts; Endangered and endemic species; Conservation
in-situ Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. STUDIES
Environmental Pollution: Definition, Causes, effects and control measures
of : a. Air pollution b. Water pollution c. Soil pollution d. Noise pollution e. Thermal
pollution f. Nuclear hazards; Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control
measures of urban and industrial wastes – biodegradable and non biodegradable
wastes; Role of an individual in prevention of pollution; Disaster Management:
Floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Social Issues and the Environment: From Unsustainable to Sustainable
development; Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management;
Resettlement and rehabilitation of people, its problems and concerns; Environmental
ethics; Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, unclear
accidents and holocaust; Wasteland reclamation; Consumerism and waste products;
Environmental Legislation; Public awareness.
Human Population and the Environment: Population growth, variation
among nations; Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme; Environment
and human health and hygiene (including Sanitation and HIV/AIDS) etc.; Role of
Information Technology in Environment and Human Health.
Solved paper 2013
Solved paper 2014
Solved paper 2015