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# Basics Thermal Physics

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Textbook of Physics as Per CBCS Physics (honours) 3rd Semester Syllabus.

Contents

Unit 1: Introduction to Thermodynamics            7-139

• Thermodynamic Systems         7

1.1.1 Classification of systems:               8

1.1.2 Classification of boundaries of thermodynamic systems:        8

1.2 Thermodynamic state of a system and thermodynamic variables (intensive and extensive):        9

1.3 Thermodynamic equilibrium:     10

1.4 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:  10

1.5 The equation of state:  12

1.5.1 Deductions from equation of state:        13

1.6 Thermodynamic process:            15

1.6.1 Reversible and Irreversible process:      15

1.6.2 Quasi-Static process:                16

1.6.3 Representation of a process (Indicator diagram):               16

1.7 Heat:               17

1.8 Work:              17

1.8.1 Equivalence of Work and Heat:             18

1.8.2 Mechanical equivalent of  heat:             18

1.9 Expression of work done for a gaseous system:     19

1.9.1 Calculation of work done from indicator diagram:            19

1.9.2 Work done by a gaseous system in cyclic process              20

1.9.3 Expression for magnetic work                                                21

1.9.4 Work done by a gaseous system in isothermal process      21

1.9.5 Work done by a gaseous system in isochoric process        22

1.9.6 Work done by a gaseous system in isobaric process           22

1.9.7 Work done by a gaseous system in an adiabatic process: 23

1.10 Dependence of work and heat on the path between initial and final state       24

1.11 Internal energy     24

1.12 First Law of Thermodynamics            25

1.13. Molar heat capacities of an ideal gas     27

1.13.1 Molar heat capacity at constant volume             27

1.13.2 Molar heat capacity at constant pressure            27

1.14 Applications of 1st law of thermodynamics          27

1.14.1 Difference of heat capacities of an ideal gas      30

1.14.2 Equation of state for an adiabatic process (from 1st law of Thermodynamics            34

1.14.3 Slope of adiabatic and isothermal curves           37

1.14.4 Ratio of adiabatic and isothermal elasticity (compressibility coefficient)    38

1.15 Enthalpy              40

1.16 Entropy              53

1.16.1 Physical significance/ concept of entropy          55

1.16.2 Entropy form of 1st law of thermodynamics      56

1.16.3 Entropy change in case of ideal or perfect gas  57 (DEBA DA, plz correct the topic numbering inside the page)

1.16.4 Entropy change in phase transition      59

1.17 Conversion of heat into work and work into heat                60

1.18. Heat engines               60

1.18.1 Maximum efficient engine: Carnot’s engine      61

1.18.2 Temperature – entropy diagram for Carnot cycle: (T-S diagram): 64

1.18.3 Refrigerator              66

1.19 Second Law of Thermodynamics        68

1.19.1 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statement  69

1.20. Carnot’s theorem       70

1.21 Clausius theorem: Clausius inequality   72

1.22. Principle of increase of entropy             74

1.23. Entropy changes in reversible and irreversible processes: 76

1.23.1 Change of entropy in a reversible process          76

1.23.2 Change of entropy in an irreversible process     77

1.24. Second Law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy         78

1.25. Absolute or Kelvin’s or Thermodynamic scale of temperature       79

1.26 The thermodynamic potential functions        86

1.26.1 The differentials of potential function                87

1.26.2 Importance of these potentials                             92

1.27 Maxwell’s Thermodynamic Relations (from thermodynamic potentials)   93

1.27.1 Deductions from Maxwell’s relations                                 99

1.27.1.1 Clausius – Clapeyron Equation         99

1.27.1.2 -Equations                                     100

1.27.1.3 Equation of state of a real gas undergoing adiabatic change      102

1.27.1.4 Work done for a real gas in adiabatic expansion          103

1.27.1.5 Variation of  with volume and  with pressure       104

1.27.1.6 Difference of heat capacities (                         104

1.27.1.7 Ratio of adiabatic to isothermal elasticity                       107

1.27.1.8: Effect of increase in pressure on heated body              108

1.27.1.9: Surface film                                                                         109

1.28 Energy Equations                                                                                                       110

1.29 Phase transitions                                                                                                         112

1.29.1 First-order phase transition: Causius-Clapeyron’s equation (Using Carnot cycle): (first latent heat equation)                                                                                                                    113

1.29.2 Clausius Second latent heat equation                                                 115

1.29.3 Specific heat of saturated vapour (discussion of the second latent heat equation)     116

1.29.4 Ehrenfest’s equation for second order phase transition                   117

1.30 Production of Low temperatures:                                                                           120

1.30.1 Joule-Thomson (Joule-Kelvin) effect                                                 120

1.30.2 Cooling due to Adiabatic demagnetisation                                        123

1.31 The 3rd Law of thermodynamics                                                             127

1.31.1 Non-attainability of absolute zero: (consequence of the third law of thermodynamics)           128

Unit II: Kinetic Theory of Gases                  140- 226

2.1 Distribution of Velocities:                                               140

2.1.1 Maxwell’s speed or velocity distribution law:                     141

2.1.2. Average or Mean velocity                                                      148

2.1.3. Root mean square (r.m.s) speed ():                               149

2.1.4.Most Probable velocity:                                                             152

2.1.5 Dependence of Distribution of molecular velocity on temperature and pressure of the gas         152

2.2 Doppler broadening of spectral lines                                                         153

2.3 STERN’S Experiment                                                                                 156

2.4 Degrees of freedom of a dynamical system                                            157

2.5 Law of equipartition of energy                                                                   159

2.6 Specific Heat                                                                                                 160

2.6.1 Specific heat of a gas                                                                161

2.6.2 Ratio of specific heat (molar) and degrees of freedom of ideal gas (atomicity of gases):             162

2.7 Molecular Collisions                                                       170

2.7.1 Mean free path :                                                                    170

2.7.1.1 Distribution of free paths (collision probability):              171

2.7.1.2 Estimates (calculation) of mean free path: Expression for mean free path                       (approximation method):                                                                                                               173

2.7.2 Transport phenomenon in gases                                             175

2.7.2.1 Thermal conductivity of a gas                             179

2.7.2.2 Diffusion in a gas (transport of mass):                  182

2.7.3 Brownian Motion:                                                                      184

2.8 Real Gases:                                                                      191

2.8.1: Behavior of Real Gases                                                           191

2.8.1.1 Deviation from the ideal/perfect gas equation: 192

2.8.2: Virial equation of state                                                           194

2.8.3: Andrew’s experiment on :                                               195

2.8.4: Critical constants of a gas:                                                     198

2.8.5 Continuity of state:                                                                   198

2.8.6: Van  der  Waals equation of state:                                        199

2.8.6.1 Critical constants of a gas (van der Waals gas):               203

2.8.6.2 Reduced equation of state and law of corresponding state:           206

2.8.6.3 Comparison of theoretical and experimental curves                       208

2.8.7 Joule’s law for an ideal gas                                                                     209

2.8.8 Joule’s expansion                                                                                      209

2.8.8.1 Joule’s free expansion experiment to detect intermolecular attraction       210

2.8.8.2 Joule-Thomson porous plug experiment:                                                          211

2.8.8.3 Reason for Joule Thomson (Joule kelvin) effect or explanation of results or Theory of Joule Thomson expansion or theory of Porous plug experiment                                            213

2.8.8.4 Joule-Thomson effect for van der Waals gas (Expression for J-T cooling and temperature of inversion):                                                                                                                                216

2.8.9 Relation between Boyle temperature, temperature of inversion, and critical temperature:        219

Weight .370 kg 24 × 19 × 2 cm

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