TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction, Concepts of feudalism- Origin of Feudalism, Meaning of feudalism, Characteristics of feudalism, Feudalism and regional variations
Introduction, Reasons for the feudal crisis- A demographic collapse, Role of Guilds, Agricultural depression, Lust of lords to increase their incomes and living standards, Commercial expansion, and division of labour, Peasants revolt, Capitalist commodity production, The Rise of Nation-state. The emergence of the nation-state.
Introduction, Commercial Decline, Middle ages expansion, Decay of towns, Growth of big cities, Epidemics- Plague, Black Death, Effects of Blach death.
Introduction, Maurice Herbert Dobb, Views of Maurice Dobb on Transition of feudalism to capitalism, Paul Marlor Sweezy, Maurice Dobb, and Paul Sweezy: Debate, Marc Leopold Benjamin Bloch, Marc Bloch’s views on feudalism, Georges Duby, Georges Duby and the feudal revolution of 11th century, Robert Paul Brenner, Robert Paul Brenner and his debate on transition, Conclusion
Introduction, The Reasons and motivations of voyages and geographical explorations- Motives for overseas discoveries,Crusades, Renaissance, Religious Desire, The fall of Constantinople, Economic motives.The Role of explorers in changing the world- Portuguese Explorers, Spanish Explorers, French explorers, British Explorers. The Atlantic crossing and important Geographical discoveries, Significance of exploration
Introduction, The Discovery of America, Spanish conquistadors and plundering of the new world- Greed for gold, The Mayans in Mexico, Aztecs in central Mexico and the Cortes, The Incas, Occupation of Brazil. Exploration of North America, Colonization of America 1600- 1763-British colonies in America, French colonies in America, Spanish and Portuguese colonies, The Dutch and English rivalry
Introduction, Colonial evolution, Colonial Empires of Early modern Age, Colonial South Africa, Colonial India
Introduction, Mining in America, England, Development of mine companies, Origin of slavery, Slaves in plantation, Colonialism, and Atlantic slave trade, The expansion of the slave trade, Conclusion
Introduction, The Renaissance background, What does the term ‘Renaissance denotes?, Renaissance: Origins and impacts, Why Renaissance began in Italy only?, Causes of Renaissance- Impact of Crusades, Reintroduction of new Classical learnings, The Printing Press, New wealth and the Black Death, Fall of Constantinople, Economic and commercial prosperity, The rise of Mongolian Empire. The main aspects of Renaissance
Introduction, What is Humanism?, Universities and humanism, Italian Humanists, Women in Renaissance society
The rediscovery of classical literature– Italian literature, French literature, French literature, Other languages literature, The rediscovery of classical antiquity, Print culture
Introduction, Influence on Art- Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael Santi. Impact on Architecture- Filippo Brunelleschi, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Giotto, Donatello, Masaccio, Lorenzo de Medici. Impact on Sculptor, Impact on education, Impact on Science, Impact on Polity- Machiavelli. Conclusion.
Introduction, Debates within Christianity Meaning of Reformation, Causes of reformation- Corruption in the Church, Economic causes, Political Causes, Immediate cause. Martin Luthar ( 1483- 1546) and Reformation Movement- Early life, Foundation of the Protestant Reformation, Diet of Worms, Peasants revolt ( 1524), Expansion of Lutherianism Treaty of Augsburg, Treaty of Augsburg,John Calvin and Calvinism- Beliefs of Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli Beliefs of Calvin- Beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli
Introduction, The Anabaptists, Munster in Germany and Anabaptists, Huguenots, Main thoughts of Huguenots, conclusion
King Henry VIII, Edward VI and Reformation, Mary Tudor and her policies, Elizabeth I
Introduction, The Catholic Reformation, The Counter-Reformation, Papal Activities for Reformation, The Council of Trent, Outcomes of the Council of Trent, Society of Jesus, Results of Counter-Reformation
Introduction,Period of economic expansion, Economic upheaval and great price inflation, Causes of inflation, Effects of inflation on poor, Economic stagnation- after 1600
Introduction, Expansion of agriculture Agricultural Revolution- Open field system, Enclosure movement, Scientific farming, New agricultural techniques, Impact of Agriculture Revolution
CHAPTER 19- COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION; INFLUX OF AMERICAN SILVER AND THE PRICE REVOLUTION. Introduction, Capitalism: Characteristics, Mercantilism; The medieval origins, Capitalism and Mercantilism; a commercial revolution